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The “second hand” service, when a person, in order to protect against fraudsters, appoints an assistant to approve their online banking transactions, can be used not only by people with disabilities and the elderly, but also by citizens of other categories. This follows from the response of the press service of the Central Bank to the request of Izvestia… The opinion that it can be useful to different users is also shared by other members of the Expert Council for the Protection of Consumer Rights of Financial Services at the Central Bank, at the next meeting of which amendments to the bill will be considered. Also it is proposed to limit the services covered by the tool, online transfers and processing of loans, to secure the status of a trustee, as well as to record consent to help in the credit bureaus (BKI). Such initiatives are contained in the opinion of the National Council of the Financial Market (NSFM) on the draft law. Truth, some experts believe that it is better to record information about consent on the “Gosuslugi” portal.

All ages are submissive

In August 2021, the Central Bank recommended that banks introduce the so-called “second hand” service to protect certain categories of citizens (with disabilities and the elderly) from fraudulent activities.… It is understood that such a person, by agreement with another client of a credit institution, can appoint him as his assistant, who will receive notifications about planned online transactions and will be able to confirm or reject them. If he notices any unusual activity, the regulator explained then, he will be able to clarify with the escort what is happening, and if fraud is detected, he will dissuade him from performing the operation.

It was assumed that only the client can initiate the connection of the service… And upon receiving a request to deactivate such a service, banks are advised to check the request for potential fraud. State Duma Deputy Natalya Kostenko has developed a relevant bill, since the introduction of the service requires legislative changes.

As the press service of the Central Bank told Izvestia, at the next meeting of the Expert Council for the Protection of Consumer Rights of Financial Services it is proposed to discuss the comments, proposals and additions to the project. In addition, the Central Bank told Izvestia that previously, the regulator recommended that banks offer a “second hand” service to protect clients with disabilities and the elderly.

Photo: IZVESTIYA / Konstantin Kokoshkin

At the same time, we believe that such a service could be useful to other users., – noted in the Bank of Russia.

Yevgenia Lazareva, head of the Popular Front project “For the Rights of Borrowers”, also believes that there is no need to be limited by the criteria of a person’s age and status, it may even be dangerous.

– Our experience of working with citizens’ appeals, researching the situation and signals coming to the Moshelovka platform demonstrate that more and more often it is not only grandparents who need to stop from signing a loan agreement in time. Middle-aged people and young people are among the victims of fraud that would benefit greatly from this feature.– said the expert, adding that the main thing in this tool should be voluntariness, so that citizens have the opportunity to decide how to protect themselves.

The NSFR also thinks that it is appropriate to extend the use of the tool to all categories of citizens, since often the operations of young people also require close attentionwho have already passed the age of partial legal capacity, but still do not have enough experience and knowledge to make important financial decisions.

At the same time, the council prepared a voluminous document with a conclusion (Izvestia has it) on Natalya Kostenko’s project. The deputy told Izvestia that she has not yet gotten to know him, but she is ready to consider and discuss with experts and the Central Bank all proposals that have a rational grain.

Conditionally limited

So, the council believes that very it is important to determine the operations for which the approval of a third party is required… If you include all banking services, including those with low risk (for example, currency exchange, opening an account, etc.), then, on the one hand, this will result in a significant increase in the operating expenses of banks, on the other hand, it will complicate the life of clients.

As Aleksandr Naumov, the deputy head of the NSFR, explained to Izvestia, the issue of the relationship between the new instrument and the capacity of citizens is also acute.

In fact, we are talking about limiting financial services to certain categories. In this regard, we believe that there is no need to extend the “second hand” service to all banking services.… For example, if a person wants to open or close an account without the use of biometrics, then he will have to personally visit the bank with a trusted person, which makes the procedure more complicated, – he commented.

If the “second hand” instrument is extended to all banking services, we are confident in the NSFM, then the citizen will be significantly limited in his actions and will become completely dependent on a third party.

Bank

Photo: Izvestia / Dmitry Korotaev

And relatives do not always act honestly towards older people. And they simply may not have the time or desire at the moment to give their approval… In addition, the anti-fraud control by banks itself, which has been strengthened in relation to certain categories of customers, already now leads to the fact that the operations of such people are more often blocked. There are cases when for several days they cannot receive the card to which the pension is transferred, – said Alexander Naumov.

Therefore, the NSFM, in order to protect clients from fraud, but without excessive and unreasonable complication of banking services, proposes to limit the use of the “second hand” service only in relation to money transfers and obtaining loans (loans) carried out using remote channels. Statistics show that they account for the largest number of unauthorized transactions.

According to Yegor Krivosheya, head of research at the Skolkovo-NES Financial Center, perhaps a more flexible approach is required here, which implies not so much a channel of interaction as the elaboration of various scenarios and potential problems that citizens may face.

– For instance, issuing loans is associated with greater risks than opening an account. Closing an account or transferring funds, on the contrary, is more risky than repaying a loan., – the expert believes.

And Evgenia Lazareva is sure that the use of the “second hand” should not be limited to remote service only.

“Everyone knows the situations when attackers take the victim to the bank by phone and persuade them to take loans,” she notes.

Who can help?

Also, we are confident in the NSFR, it is very important to prescribe in the law the status of a trustee and the procedure for assigning such a service, since the assistant will actually be able to manage his money in parallel with the client… Therefore, it is important to prevent “abuse by unscrupulous third parties”.

Bank

Photo: Izvestia / Alexander Kazakov

In this regard, the NSFM proposes to supplement the draft law with an article that regulates the grounds for using the service, as well as the procedure for its implementation.

At the same time, the very legal status of this third party is unclear, the NSFR emphasizes. “So, he is not a surety in the sense of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, since, based on the meaning of the bill, he does not assume joint responsibility on a debt obligation and, accordingly, is not responsible for debt obligations in the event the borrower fails to fulfill its obligations under the consumer credit (loan) agreement, ”the council’s document says.

Also, the NSFM believes, it is necessary to establish the rules for obtaining two consents (a client and a trustee), as well as the ability to revoke these consents.

BCI or “Gosuslugi”?

Another important and controversial point of the “second hand” service, which was immediately noted by many experts – how banks will find out that a citizen has decided to seek the help of a trustee. So, he can be a client of one organization, and fraudsters can force him to use the services of another..

In the NSFR to solve this problem, they propose to record the submission of an application in the personal account of the BCI, which is already used by about 3 million people. In addition, all citizens who have an account in the Unified Information System can get access to it.

Bank

Photo: Izvestia / Pavel Volkov

Alexey Volkov, Marketing Director of the National Bureau of Credit Histories, believes that this is logical. According to him, already now one of the functions of the BCH is to help banks in the fight against fraud. And a minor technical adjustment of services is required to ensure the acceptance of applications from citizens about the use of a trustee to approve banking operations.

The “second hand” tool implies informing all creditors, confirms Evgenia Lazareva.

– And in this sense it should be borne in mind that people with zero credit history often become victims of fraudsters, and then there is simply nothing to put the label on the “second hand”, – she noted.

Therefore, according to the expert, a record of a third party, from whom it is necessary to request approval of the issuance of a loan or loan, must be kept on “Gosuslugi”, and creditors should be given the opportunity to automatically verify the existence of such a record.

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