at Moderna it is about two vaccine doses, each containing 25 micrograms of mRNAthat are injected 28 days apart. So by a quarter of the dose intended for adults. Despite the lower dose, the immune response was just as strong as in adults, the company had announced. The data, which is being discussed in an FDA committee today, is based on a study involving a total of 6,700 children. the effectiveness of the vaccine was during the omicron wave for the very young, according to the study 51 percent (six months to 2 years) as well 37 percent for 2 to 5 year olds. These efficacy estimates are comparable to adult vaccine efficacy against Omicron after two doses, according to the company.
The US pharmaceutical giant Moderna is not only waiting for approval in the United States – Moderna has also applied for approval to be extended to children aged six months to five years in the EU.
Biontech relies on three stitches for the little ones
Competitor relies on a different vaccine scheme Pfizer/Biotech, whose study start was unfortunate. As a reminder: In a first study, Biontech/Pfizer tested two doses of three micrograms each in children aged six months and five years. In infants aged two to five years, however, the two-dose vaccination did not lead to a sufficient immune response, as announced in December. The two-dose vaccination schedule was only successful in children under the age of two.
The pharmaceutical partners then expanded their study to include a booster: The children under 5 were so with three stitches of 3 micrograms mRNA each vaccinated, i.e. one tenth of the adult dose. The third dose was administered at least two months after the second dose.
In contrast to the two stitches, this model showed success: The effectiveness According to the company, the vaccination schedule is included 80.3 percent. The data come from a study with 1,678 vaccinated small children: This study is also being debated by the FDA experts today.
Both vaccines were well tolerated and no new side effects were observed.
Protecting Children from Pims and Long Covid
In addition to effectiveness and good tolerability, the question of whether children under the age of five should be vaccinated also includes the possible consequences of an infection with the coronavirus: children can start three to four weeks after their acute Covid 19 infection pims fall ill, a severely inflammatory disease.
The cause of the emergence is unclear and there is currently no reliable data on the frequency: Studies speak of one case in 2,000 infected children. In many cases, Pims is accompanied by symptoms of shock and temporary cardiovascular insufficiency.
Also Long Covid can affect children – one in four children who contracted Covid-19 and had symptoms could experience long-term effects, a review study shows. Of around 80,000 children from 21 international studies, 25 percent of the zero to 18-year-olds developed symptoms that lasted at least four to twelve weeks or that appeared within twelve weeks after infection (the study can here in English be read).