An exhibition opened at the Museum of Cosmonautics "Dzhanibekov effect"

The Museum of Cosmonautics in Moscow opened the exhibition “The Dzhanibekov Effect”, dedicated to the 80th anniversary of twice Hero of the Soviet Union, USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov. Here are authentic personal items, documents, awards and author’s works of Vladimir Dzhanibekov – paintings and graphics, as well as space relics that have not been exhibited before – the cosmonaut’s sight, items of wearable emergency stock and space clothing.

Vladimir Dzhanibekov is a member of the Union of Artists of the USSR. In 1978-1985, he made five space flights on the Soyuz and Soyuz T spacecraft, the Salyut-6 and Salyut-7 orbital stations. In total – 145 days in weightlessness. In his space baggage, two spacewalks: 8.5 hours alone with the vacuum.

In 1978, Dzhanibekov was the commander of the world’s first expedition to visit the orbital station. In 1981, he led the only Soviet-Mongolian crew in history, and in 1982, the first Soviet-French crew. In 1984, he went into outer space together with Svetlana Savitskaya, and in 1985, together with Viktor Savinykh, he saved the “dead” Salyut-7 station from inevitable, as it seemed then, death.

Few people know that after the rescue of Salyut-7, the country’s leadership had a question: how to reward Dzhanibekov? At that time, the third star of the Hero of the Soviet Union was not given to anyone, and he already had two Stars. And then he was awarded the military rank – “Major General of Aviation.”

… It hits the nerves: “We can only return one person to Earth!” These words are from the widely publicized film “Salyut-7”, which is based on the real dramatic events of 1985. Then Vladimir Dzhanibekov and Viktor Savinykh flew into orbit on the Soyuz T-13 spacecraft. One – the fifth flight, the other – the second. The task is to dock with the Salyut-7 space station, conduct technical experiments and routine maintenance. But this is the official version.

In fact, everything was very bad. A technical accident occurred on Salyut-7: the station did not give signals, got out of control and began to lose altitude, steadily descending towards the Earth. Where exactly it will fall is unpredictable. As well as the consequences of the fall. In the history of cosmonautics, there has already been a tragedy of the American Skylab station. Its wreckage flew to Australia.

What forecast did ballistics give for the time of uncontrolled deorbiting of Salyut-7? About six months to a year. But there was no exact forecast. At the station, the radio communication system initially failed. An electrical sensor failure has occurred. Automation worked incorrectly – all the power supply flew. The station is frozen. Including oxygen supply system, hot water supply system, etc. “Salyut-7” turned into an ice house.

They say that in the MCC, in order to understand how cold it is at the station, Vladimir Dzhanibekov was asked to spit. He spat, and saliva froze on the porthole. It took a huge effort to restart and reconfigure everything. Cosmonaut Valery Ryumin, who was constantly in touch with the crew at the MCC, said: “Docking Soyuz T-13 with Salyut-7 is the same as docking with a cobblestone.

Yes, there was an unmanaged object in front of the astronauts. Before them, no one had ever performed the approach and docking of a ship with an uncontrolled space body. What Dzhanibekov and Savinykh did was included in the textbooks. After that, it became clear that it was possible to “swim up” and repair any apparatus in orbit.

When the station began to “thaw”, the main problem was the rags to clean up the streams of water? Dzhanibekov said: he put his hand behind one panel, behind the other – completely water. To cope with the flood, everything that was at hand went into action. Including things from the previous expedition. Even overalls were torn to shreds. But the lack of rags is not the biggest problem. There was a real fire hazard: water and electricity are notoriously incompatible. It just worked out by some miracle.

The Dzhanibekov Effect exhibition will be open for everyone until September 11, 2022.

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