In mid-November, within the framework of the “government hour”, the Minister of Education of the Russian Federation Sergey Kravtsov spoke about the implementation of the national project “Education”. In particular, the Ministry of Education has developed a unified program for the education of preschool children. In the near future, educational institutions will start working according to the new requirements. It is assumed that the new system will contribute to the education of the younger generation in national and cultural traditions and knowledge of them. Izvestia examined what aspects of the educational process are affected by the program and what other innovations are provided for by the document.
In place of the old
The federal educational program for preschool education was developed in accordance with Part 65 of Art. 12 of the Federal Law of December 29, 2012 N 273-FZ “On Education in the Russian Federation”.
— The development of a federal program for preschool education was initiated by the Ministry of Education after amendments were made to the law on education in the Russian Federation, – explains the Chairman of the Council for Professional Qualifications in Education, Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board of the Russian society “Knowledge”, coordinator of the ONF project “Equal Opportunities for Children”, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences Lyubov Dukhanina.
The main tasks of the new DDO program are the synchronization of the content of education with the national development goals of the state, the formation of a single core of preschool education and the strengthening of the educational component, she argues.
Prior to this, a unified state standard for preschool education in our country was first created in accordance with the requirements of the federal law “On Education” that came into force on September 1, 2013, says the founder of the Cosmo Kids kindergarten network, teacher Elena Mingova.
Photo: TASS/Valery Matytsin
– Directly assessing the performance and success of each child was subjective. The requirements of the current program are primarily based on the consistent supply of a variety of developmental and educational material to children without regard to performance, she explains.
The development of the new project was carried out by a working group of the Ministry of Education together with employees of the Institute of Developmental Physiology of the Russian Academy of Education. The document was created as part of the ministry’s course to unify all educational programs and create a single recommended version of the program at each level of education.
As the Minister of Education of the Russian Federation Sergey Kravtsov stated at the plenary meeting of the State Duma on November 16, 2022, the federal state educational standards were significantly updated, they outlined “clear guidelines in terms of the spiritual, patriotic, personal development of children, as well as the expected results.”
The documents have already been developed, their approval will be completed by January 1, 2023, the minister said.
In particular, in the new format of the educational process, the emphasis is on patriotism, namely on “the upbringing and development of the child as a citizen of the Russian Federation”, “forming the foundations of his civil and cultural identity” and introducing children to the “spiritual, moral and socio-cultural values of the Russian people” follows from the text.
“Earlier, 24 programs of preschool education were approved in Russia, and in the practice of applying each of them there were some nuances and distortions,” explains Natalya Kravchenko, chairman of the commission of the RF OP for the development of preschool, school, secondary vocational education and educational activities.
Photo: RIA Novosti / Nikolai Khizhnyak
The new system is aimed at creating and strengthening a single educational space, Elena Mingova draws attention. There is no clear division into disciplines, but the individual characteristics of each child are taken into account.
– The new program significantly updated the state educational standards with the designation of clear guidelines for the comprehensive cultural and patriotic education and development of children, she says.
In the absence of an assessment method, the new program introduces the concept of the expected result, for which a holistic approach to teaching various disciplines is being formed. According to the expert, the program was developed on the principle of the unity of diversity and is based on the diversity of ethnic and cultural characteristics of different peoples of Russia and regional differences.
One space for all
It is assumed that the program will be used as the basis for the independent development and approval of programs by a preschool educational organization.
The mandatory part of the programs must comply with the federal program and make up at least 60% of the total, no more than 40% is allocated to the part formed by the educational organizations themselves. The variable part of the program, as the chairman of the Council for Professional Qualifications in Education Lyubov Dukhanina clarifies, will make it possible to implement the directions of development chosen taking into account the opinion of parents.
— Now there is a trend to create a single educational space, and in this space the key is the process of education. The new program will allow us to combine the educational and upbringing components of the educational process into a single process, taking into account the experience already gained,” Natalya Kravchenko also says.
Photo: TASS / Egor Aleev
The document defines the structure of the educational program, forming the tasks and content of the federal work program of education, the federal work program of education, the program of correctional and developmental work, the approximate mode and daily routine in the preschool group, as well as the federal calendar plan of educational work.
– The program clearly regulates the start and end time of training activities, as well as their duration and duration of breaks in accordance with the age group. In particular, the beginning is not earlier than eight in the morning and the end is no later than five in the evening, – adds Elena Mingova.
The new program also contains a list of outstanding educational, cinematographic, literary, musical works for joint viewing with adults and discussion with parents. For the smallest children, for example, small forms of Russian folklore, Russian folk tales, children’s poetry and prose are recommended.
Everyone has their time
According to the Ministry of Education, there are more than 46,000 organizations in the Russian Federation that implement educational programs for preschool education and care for children. They are attended by over 99% of the country’s children aged three to seven years and over 96% of children aged two months to three years. The total number of pupils of preschool age is about 7.2 million children.
– The program, after approval, will apply to all preschool institutions implementing the Federal State Educational Standard, including private kindergartens, – notes Lyubov Dukhanina.
Photo: TASS / Egor Aleev
The new document also indicates the age guidelines and periodization of the mental development of preschoolers. It affects upbringing and education from the age of two months to 7-8 years. If now schoolchildren are divided not only by age, but also by the usual names (nursery group, junior, middle, senior and preparatory), then the new program previously includes only a breakdown by age categories (1.5–3 years, 3–4 years, 4–5 years old, 6–7 years old), says Elena Mingova.
— The project turned out to be a framework one. It clarifies key approaches in preschool education and development targets for each age, a single basic volume, content and results,” agrees Lyubov Dukhanina.
For each of the groups, tasks, the content of educational activities and its results are formulated. It is the latter that serves as the target guidelines for preschool education, which should be present in all activities of a preschooler designated in the Federal State Educational Standard. At the same time, as Elena Mingova notes, the results of development are presented in the form of benchmarks for the child’s achievements without a specific assessment: “The program pays special attention to the fact that an individual child or a group of children can demonstrate results several months later than the expected standard time, this aspect is documented in program.”
The main goal of the new program is to collect all the best methodological recommendations in order to provide equal opportunities for the development of children throughout the country, Natalya Kravchenko believes. The Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation monitors the development of the program and plans to hold a public discussion of the version of the document close to the final before the new year, so that all proposals from the public, professional and parent communities are taken into account, she stressed.
Photo: Global Look Press/imago-images/Lillian Suwanrumpha
Classes for children of different ages also last differently: from 1.5 to 3 years – no more than ten minutes, from 3 to 4 years – no more than 15 minutes, etc., up to half an hour – at 6-7 years of age . The break between classes should be at least ten minutes, and gymnastics – at least two.
Not only teachers and educators will instill national values. The behavior of a child can vary greatly in an educational institution and at home, so the new system is connected with all adult members of the pupil’s family. The result of the program depends on many factors: how parents interact with the employees of the preschool, what kind of relationship between adults and the child, and even on the process of communication between children and peers. As Elena Mingova notes, the new program assigns a significant role to the participation of parents in the educational process: “The program provides for a specific list of fiction, films and other types of art for viewing and studying together with parents. It should be especially taken into account that the program offers not only the joint development of the material, but also discussion and primary analytics, designed to strengthen the close spiritual and cultural contact of parents with the child.
It is also necessary to involve parents in the process of raising a child, emphasizes Natalya Kravchenko. It is critical to define the role of parents, as parental involvement is one of the main elements in the development, upbringing and education of a child and this should be taken into account in the final document, she adds.
In mid-November, the draft program went through a professional and public discussion. It, according to Lyubov Dukhanina, involved program developers, kindergartens, universities and colleges that train teachers. “The Ministry of Education promised to analyze and take into account the comments and suggestions received,” the expert shared.