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Tachycardia is one of the most common ailments of modern city dwellers.… What should be done if malfunctions in the work of the heart become noticeable, what are their causes and how the problem can be avoided – in the material of Izvestia.

What are the types of tachycardia

Tachycardia is a rapid heartbeat when the pulse rate exceeds 100 beats per minute. The reason can be both the condition of the heart as a whole, and disturbances in the work of other organs and systems of the body.

The most common tachycardia is sinuswhen impulses in the heart arise in a normal way, but with a high frequency. It is considered normal during physical and emotional stress, pregnancy, and occurs in people, including children and adolescents, with low blood pressure. Abnormal sinus tachycardia can occur in diseases of the thyroid gland, serve as a manifestation of anemia and hypertension, after drinking alcohol or smoking. In addition, the cause of tachycardia, as doctors found out, may be a magnesium deficiency in the body.

Atrial fibrillation is a common form of tachycardia.

– In this case, the formation of impulses in the sinus node is disturbed and the heart contracts irregularly. The frequency of contractions can be very high (up to 200 beats per minute). Usually with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness occur. However, some patients may not pay attention to their rapid irregular pulse., – told “Izvestia” cardiologist “CM-Clinic” Daria Sergeeva.

Photo: TASS / Kirill Kukhmar

The next type of arrhythmia is paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The attack usually starts suddenly. The heart beats rhythmically with a very high frequency – 150-200 beats per minute. With an attack, the doctor says, severe weakness, shortness of breath, darkening in the eyes usually develop, a person may lose consciousness. It often manifests itself in young people and is associated with the presence of additional pathways in the heart.

The most dangerous type of tachycardia is ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The heart cannot effectively contract, and the blood flow velocity is critically reduced. The person loses consciousness. Respiratory arrest occurs. The pulse is not determined – clinical death develops.

As the doctor explained, this ailment develops in people suffering from coronary heart disease and heart failure. It is also widespread among those who have acquired defects, myocarditis, in those who have had myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy in the past.

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Photo: TASS / Sergey Bobylev

There are also a number of congenital heart diseases that manifest exclusively as life-threatening ventricular tachycardias that lead to sudden cardiac death in the absence of other symptoms. These include arrhythmogenic right ventricular myocardial dysplasia, prolonged QT interval syndrome, shortened QT interval syndrome, Brugada syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and others.

Prevention of life-threatening tachycardia

If a person has a tendency to sinus tachycardia and he has to participate in an exciting event, many meetings or difficult work, a contrast shower is recommended the day before, sleep well, take tea with soothing herbs, – Inna Akchurina, a cardiac surgeon of the Russian Railways-Medicine clinic, a doctor of the highest category, an arrhythmologist, told Izvestia.

Heart palpitations are often associated with chronic fatigue. According to the doctor, the body, as it were, informs the person: “I am doing the load, but it’s hard for me.” How dangerous is this form of tachycardia?

– A lot of people tell me: “I walked up the floors, and then my heart does not calm down for 15 minutes”. This is the first chronic fatigue syndrome. And then we ask questions, how a person sleeps, how he endures physical activity, – the doctor explains.

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Photo: TASS / Artem Geodakyan

Akchurina emphasizes that social factors also play an important role in the prevention of arrhythmias. So, she points out that pain in the heart can appear several days after a person has experienced a stressful situation.

What to do with life-threatening tachycardia

Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia can manifest itself in the same way as heart-safe arrhythmias. It is not felt in any way, and then it manifests itself as a sudden cardiac death.– Yaroslav Ashikhmin, a cardiologist, candidate of medical sciences, advisor to the general director of the Skolkovo Medical Cluster Foundation, told Izvestia.

In this regard, according to him, everyone should have an EKG at least once in their life. When can the first cardiogram be done? Doctors believe that for those who have not developed heart disease, an electrocardiogram can be done from the age of 18. Conclusions can be drawn from one ECG and then not repeated (the reasons are usually genetic). The exceptions are those with early sudden cardiac deaths in their families and professional athletes. They should arrive early for testing.

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Photo: TASS / URA.RU / Anna Mayorova

Patients diagnosed with life-threatening tachycardia, Inna Akchurina advised in no case to postpone a visit to a cardiologist or arrhythmologist.

For some we can limit physical activity, driving, where concentration is especially important. We select therapy for others, – Inna Akchurina summed up. The doctor emphasized that self-medication is contraindicated in such patients. It can lead to the most dire consequences.

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